Valdepeñas (Ciudad Real)

Valdepeñas es municipio y ciudad de España, situado en el centro-sur de la península, en la provincia de Ciudad Real, dentro de la comunidad autónoma de Castilla-La Mancha, más La Mancha que Castilla eso sí. Su nombre significa valle de peñas, alrededor están las comarcas de Montiel, Campo de Calatrava y Sierra Morena.
Los cultivos mayoritarios son la vid y el olivo. El vino de Valdepeñas cuenta con Denominación de Origen propia, siendo la actividad más destacada puesto que su vino es exportado a todo el mundo. También es sede del Consejo Regulador del Queso Manchego.

Históricamente es un lugar destacado puesto que en su término municipal se encuentran múltiples restos prehistóricos siendo uno de los yacimientos arqueológicos más extensos de la provincia de Ciudad Real, es uno de los más importantes de la cultura Oretana.
En las últimas excavaciones han aparecido restos que podrían sugerir los primeros vestigios del cultivo de la vid. Es decir Valdepeñas surgió al mismo tiempo que la historia del vino, del cual existen vestigios de 5000 a 6000 años a. C. No es de extrañar que se hayan encontrado varios restos paleolíticos humanos.

La población asentada donde posteriormente se construyó el convento de los Trinitarios suponía el 1% del total de toda la Península Ibérica en el siglo XVI. En el lugar se encontraron lápidas funerarias, monedas romanas y los cimientos de una villa romana del siglo I a. C. Lo que demuestra una actividad económica constante.

Durante el periodo islámico la zona perteneció al Reino de Toledo, siendo de esta época los restos de muralla de una antigua fortaleza presentes en los muros de la iglesia de la Asunción, alrededor se fundaría la villa de Valdepeñas por decisión de la Reina Doña Berenguela tras la batalla de Las Navas de Tolosa.
Desde ese momento Valdepeñas perteneció a la Orden de Calatrava. Los nuevos pobladores procedian de los reinos de Castilla, León, Galicia y Aragón. Es en estas tierras reconquistadas dónde se exigía como condición para su establecimiento y derecho de ciudadanía continuar con el cuidado de la vid. Valdepeñas extendió los viñedos en gran medida y creciendo como próspera villa. De la época de la reconquista es la Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción, monumento nacional, y en la que encontramos desde un estilo gótico primitivo del siglo XIII hasta el denominado estilo Cisneros en sus reformas, muy presente en la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) de lo que se deduce que era de la misma época u obra de los mismos arquitectos o constructores.

En esta época medieval cabe destacar la presencia de una comunidad judía, existían al menos dos sinagogas, una convertida con el tiempo en ermita (el actualidad auditorio municipal Francisco Nieva). Actualmente las calles de Valdepeñas convergen en torno a la antigua fortaleza ,hoy iglesia, situada en el centro de la villa típica organización urbanística mediterránea. Según crece la población las calles se muestran alineadas y ordenadas. Es por lo que no se corresponde con una ciudad típicamente medieval con callejas estrechas y desalineadas lo que ratifica la idea de su nacimiento en el siglo XIII y posterior crecimiento urbanístico.

Como curiosidad la reina Isabel Trastamara, en uno de sus múltiples viajes hacia el sur, dio a luz en Valdepeñas a un niño, que no sobrevivió y posteriormente fue enterrado en la iglesia de la Asunción. El escudo de los Reyes Católicos, no muy bien conservado, preside la puerta principal de la iglesia.

Un hecho destacado de Valdepeñas es el título logrado a raíz del acontecimiento sucedido el 6 de junio de 1808, cuando en plena ocupación napoleónica el ejército español huyó de Valdepeñas por el inminente paso de tropas napoleónicas que se dirigían a Andalucía como refuerzos. El pueblo entero (incluidas mujeres y niños, junto con vecinos de pueblos cercanos), se alzó en armas en la Contienda de Valdepeñas, no permitiendo el paso a las tropas, consiguiendo, con un coste elevado de vidas y el incendio de parte de la villa, la retirada de los franceses de la provincia de La Mancha. Este retraso facilitó la victoria española en la batalla de Bailén. El hecho fue recogido por Benito Pérez Galdós en sus “Episodios nacionales” y sirvió para que el rey Fernando VII le otorgara el título de Muy Heroica villa.

Un hecho destacable de la plaza principal es el color, un azul intenso, la cuestión es el por qué de este color. ¿Muestra de poder económico (el tinte azul era el color más caro y codiciado en la Edad Media)?, ¿distinción frente al resto de poblaciones?, ¿capricho de un señor feudal?, ¿razones terapeúticas?, ¿razones espirituales?, ¿moda medieval?… Indiscutiblemente, los colores tienen su propio valor de expresión e influyen, provocan reacciones y emociones diferentes, se revelan esenciales para nuestro equilibrio. Cada tono envía su vibración con su propia fuerza de impacto y su carga de influencia. El azul es el color más asociado a lo espiritual. Se le compara con la trasparencia del aire, del agua, del cristal y del diamante. También con el mar, el cielo, el espacio. Envía una vibración de equilibrio, de armonía y de alegría de vivir. Agranda el espacio a la vez que lo vuelve luminoso. Simboliza lo tradicional, los valores permanentes, la eternidad sin tiempo. La contemplación de este color – mientras más oscuro, mejor – tiene un efecto pacificador para el sistema nervioso central. La presión de la sangre, los ritmos del pulso y de la respiración se lentifican.
Desde luego es una plaza muy viva en la que hay lugares en los que quedar con amigos y buenos restaurantes donde comer. Es un lugar para volver y terminar de ver con más tiempo para ver el Museo de la llamada “Ciudad del vino” y poder ver con detalle los asentamientos arqueológicos.

Valdepeñas is municipality and city of Spain, located in the center-south of the peninsula, in the province of Ciudad Real, within the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla La Mancha more though. Its name means valley of rocks, some are the regions of Montiel, Campo de Calatrava and Sierra Morena.
The major crops are grapes and olives. Valdepeñas wine has its own Denomination of Origin, the most important activity since its wine is exported all over the world. It is also headquarters of the Regulatory Council of Manchego cheese.

Historically it is a highlight since its township in multiple prehistoric remains are still one of the most extensive archaeological sites in the province of Ciudad Real, is one of the most important of Oretana culture.
In recent excavations have appeared residues that might suggest the first traces of the cultivation of the vine. That is Valdepeñas arose while the history of wine, of which there are traces of 5000-6000 years. C. No wonder they have found several human Palaeolithic remains.

The population living where later the convent of the Trinity was built accounted for 1% of the Iberian Peninsula in the sixteenth century. Locally tombstones, Roman coins and the foundations of a Roman villa of the first century were found. C. This shows a steady economic activity.

During the Islamic period the area belonged to the Kingdom of Toledo, this time being the remains of an old fortress wall present in the walls of the Church of the Assumption, near the village of Valdepeñas would be based on the decision of the Queen Doña Berengaria after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.
Since then Valdepeñas belonged to the Order of Calatrava. The new settlers were from the kingdoms of Castile, León, Galicia and Aragon. It is in these lands reconquered where required as a condition of their property and citizenship rights continue the care of the vine. Valdepeñas vineyards spread largely as prosperous and growing town. From the time of the conquest, the Church of Our Lady of the Assumption, national monument, and in which we find from an early Gothic style of the thirteenth century to the so-called Cisneros style reforms, very present in the University of Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) of which suggests that it was of the same time or work the same architects or builders.

In the Middle Ages include the presence of a Jewish community, there were at least two synagogues, a converted chapel with time (the present Municipal Auditorium Francisco Nieva). Currently Valdepeñas streets converge around the old fort, church today, located in the center of Mediterranean urban organization villa. As the population grows is lined streets and tidy. That’s what does not correspond to a typical medieval town with narrow streets and misaligned which confirms the idea of his birth in the thirteenth century and later urban growth.

Curiously Transtamare Queen Elizabeth, in one of his many trips to the south, gave birth to a child in Valdepeñas, who survived and was later buried in the church of the Assumption. The shield of the Catholic Kings, not very well preserved, presides over the main door of the church.

An outstanding fact is the title Valdepeñas achieved following the event happened on June 6, 1808, when during the Napoleonic occupation of the Spanish army fled Valdepeñas by the imminent passage of Napoleonic troops heading to Andalusia as reinforcements. The whole town (including women and children, along with neighbors from nearby villages), took up arms in the Contest Valdepeñas not allowing passage to the troops, getting, at great cost of life and fire of the villa, the withdrawal of the French province of La Mancha. This delay facilitated the Spanish victory at the Battle of Bailen. The incident was picked up by Benito Perez Galdos in their “national Episodes” and helped the king Fernando VII granted him the title of Most Heroic villa.

A notable feature of the main square is the color, a deep blue, the question is why this color. Does it show economic power (blue dye was the most expensive and coveted color in the Middle Ages)?,? Distinction compared to other populations?,? Whim of a feudal lord?,? Therapeutic reasons?, Spiritual reasons??, medieval fashion?? … Unquestionably, the colors have their own value of expression and influence, cause different reactions and emotions are revealed essential to our equilibrium. Each tone sends its own vibration and impact force load influence. Blue is the color most associated with the spiritual. It is compared with the transparency of the air, water, glass and diamond. Also with the sea, sky, space. Send a vibration of balance, harmony and joy of living. Enlarges the space while it becomes luminous. It symbolizes tradition, permanent values, timeless eternity. The darker the better – – Contemplation of this color has a pacifying effect on the central nervous system. The blood pressure, pulse and rhythms of breathing slow it down.
It’s certainly a lively square where there are places to meet friends and good restaurants to eat. It’s a place to come back and finish watching more time to see the Museum of the “City of Wine” and to see in detail the archaeological settlements.Valdepeñas is municipality and city of Spain, located in the center-south of the peninsula, in the province of Ciudad Real, within the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla La Mancha more though. Its name means valley of rocks, some are the regions of Montiel, Campo de Calatrava and Sierra Morena.
The major crops are grapes and olives. Valdepeñas wine has its own Denomination of Origin, the most important activity since its wine is exported all over the world. It is also headquarters of the Regulatory Council of Manchego cheese.

Historically it is a highlight since its township in multiple prehistoric remains are still one of the most extensive archaeological sites in the province of Ciudad Real, is one of the most important of Oretana culture.
In recent excavations have appeared residues that might suggest the first traces of the cultivation of the vine. That is Valdepeñas arose while the history of wine, of which there are traces of 5000-6000 years. C. No wonder they have found several human Palaeolithic remains.

The population living where later the convent of the Trinity was built accounted for 1% of the Iberian Peninsula in the sixteenth century. Locally tombstones, Roman coins and the foundations of a Roman villa of the first century were found. C. This shows a steady economic activity.

During the Islamic period the area belonged to the Kingdom of Toledo, this time being the remains of an old fortress wall present in the walls of the Church of the Assumption, near the village of Valdepeñas would be based on the decision of the Queen Doña Berengaria after the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.
Since then Valdepeñas belonged to the Order of Calatrava. The new settlers were from the kingdoms of Castile, León, Galicia and Aragon. It is in these lands reconquered where required as a condition of their property and citizenship rights continue the care of the vine. Valdepeñas vineyards spread largely as prosperous and growing town. From the time of the conquest, the Church of Our Lady of the Assumption, national monument, and in which we find from an early Gothic style of the thirteenth century to the so-called Cisneros style reforms, very present in the University of Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) of which suggests that it was of the same time or work the same architects or builders.

In the Middle Ages include the presence of a Jewish community, there were at least two synagogues, a converted chapel with time (the present Municipal Auditorium Francisco Nieva). Currently Valdepeñas streets converge around the old fort, church today, located in the center of Mediterranean urban organization villa. As the population grows is lined streets and tidy. That’s what does not correspond to a typical medieval town with narrow streets and misaligned which confirms the idea of his birth in the thirteenth century and later urban growth.

Curiously Transtamare Queen Elizabeth, in one of his many trips to the south, gave birth to a child in Valdepeñas, who survived and was later buried in the church of the Assumption. The shield of the Catholic Kings, not very well preserved, presides over the main door of the church.

An outstanding fact is the title Valdepeñas achieved following the event happened on June 6, 1808, when during the Napoleonic occupation of the Spanish army fled Valdepeñas by the imminent passage of Napoleonic troops heading to Andalusia as reinforcements. The whole town (including women and children, along with neighbors from nearby villages), took up arms in the Contest Valdepeñas not allowing passage to the troops, getting, at great cost of life and fire of the villa, the withdrawal of the French province of La Mancha. This delay facilitated the Spanish victory at the Battle of Bailen. The incident was picked up by Benito Perez Galdos in their “national Episodes” and helped the king Fernando VII granted him the title of Most Heroic villa.

A notable feature of the main square is the color, a deep blue, the question is why this color. Does it show economic power (blue dye was the most expensive and coveted color in the Middle Ages)?,? Distinction compared to other populations?,? Whim of a feudal lord?,? Therapeutic reasons?, Spiritual reasons??, medieval fashion?? … Unquestionably, the colors have their own value of expression and influence, cause different reactions and emotions are revealed essential to our equilibrium. Each tone sends its own vibration and impact force load influence. Blue is the color most associated with the spiritual. It is compared with the transparency of the air, water, glass and diamond. Also with the sea, sky, space. Send a vibration of balance, harmony and joy of living. Enlarges the space while it becomes luminous. It symbolizes tradition, permanent values, timeless eternity. The darker the better – – Contemplation of this color has a pacifying effect on the central nervous system. The blood pressure, pulse and rhythms of breathing slow it down.
It’s certainly a lively square where there are places to meet friends and good restaurants to eat. It’s a place to come back and finish watching more time to see the Museum of the “City of Wine” and to see in detail the archaeological settlements.

(Ftes: Valdepeñas.es, Wikipedia y elaboración propia)

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